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Academic relationships developed between students and professors or teaching assistants play a large role in a student's professional and intellectual development. Research has shown multiple positive effects of academic relationships such as increases in achievement, motivation, and learning.
We examined emotional expressivity (i.e., happiness, sadness, and anger) and emotion regulation (regulation of exuberance, sadness, and anger) as they relate to academic functioning (motivation, engagement, and achievement). Also, we tested the premise that emotional expressivity and emotion regulation are indirectly associated with achievement through academic motivation and engagement. Participants included 417 elementary school students (Mage = 10 years; 52% female; 60% Black) and their teachers from a Midwestern metropolitan area. We used child and teacher questionnaires, and data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Regarding emotionality, happiness was positively associated with multiple aspects of academic functioning whereas an inverse association was found for anger; sadness was not associated with academic functioning. Also, happiness and anger were indirectly related to achievement through academic engagement. Emotion regulation was positively associated with multiple aspects of academic functioning; it was also indirectly associated with achievement through engagement. Implications are discussed regarding how social and emotional learning programs in schools can further benefit from research on children's emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record
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The Office of University Labor Relations supports the university community by advancing collegial relations between staff and management and liaising with labor unions. This office is responsible for managing universitywide labor relations for Rutgers faculty and staff.
In addition, the Office of Academic Labor Relations organizes negotiation efforts with the academic faculty unions, and provides pertinent information and guidance to chairs, deans, the provost, president, and other University administrators, managers and supervisors in contract interpretation and other administrative matters.
Scales often included more than one construct, such as combining cognitive strategies and metacognitive processes or combining metacognitive processes and metacognitive knowledge. Correlations with these scales were initially excluded from either meta-analysis given their conceptual confounding. However, if the description of the measure led us to believe that these constructs could be disentangled into subscales, we attempted to contact the first author for correlations with subscale scores.
When students in a sample belonged to more than one category of a moderator variable, the sample was classified by all applicable categories. However, belonging to more than one category often led to the exclusion of a sample from that moderator analysis. For example, students in a sample were recruited from math and science classes, yet only an overall correlation between elaboration and exam grades was reported. This correlation would not contribute to the average for math or science in the moderator analysis by academic subject.
If neither correlations nor subgroup means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were reported, we attempted to calculate correlations from relevant inferential statistics. When converting an analysis of variance to a correlation, studies were excluded if any of the groups contributing to relevant F ratios were not defined by their achievement level (e.g., students with high artistic ability). In these cases, the size of the F ratio, and